**Introduction**

A critical update of a smash hit content for the initial computerized flag handling course. This book shows the essentials of discrete-time signs, frameworks, and present day advanced preparing and applications for understudies in electrical designing, PC building, and PC science.The book is appropriate for either a one-semester or a two-semester undergrad level course in discrete frameworks and computerized flag handling. It is likewise proposed for use in a one-semester first-year graduate-level course in computerized flag handling

**Contents **

**Chapter 1 Introduction**

Signals, Systems, and Signal Processing

Classification of Signals

The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion

**Chapter 2 Discrete-Time Signals And Systems**

Discrete-Time Signals

Discrete-Time Systems

Analysis of Discrete-Time Linear Time-Invariant systems

Discrete-Time Systems Described by Difference Equations

Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems

Correlation of Discrete-Time Signals

**Chapter** **3 The Z-Transform And Its Application To The Analysis Of Lti Systems**

The z-Transform

Properties of the z-Transform

Rational z-Transforms

Inversion of the z-Transform

Analysis of Linear Time Invariant Systems in the z-Domain

The One-sided z-Transform

**Chapter** **4 Frequency Analysis Of Signals And Systems**

Frequency Analysis of Continuous-Time Signals

Frequency Analysis of Discrete-Time Signals

Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain Signal Properties

Properties of the Fourier Transform for Discrete-Time Signals

**Chapter 5 Frequency Domain Analysis Of Lti Systems**

Frequency-Domain Characteristics of Linear Time-Invariant Systems

Frequency Response of LTI Systems

Correlation Functions and Spectra at the Output of LTI Systems

Linear Time-Invariant Systems as Frequency-Selective Filters

Inverse Systems and Deconvolution

**Chapter** **6 Sampling And Reconstruction Of Signals**

Ideal Sampling and Reconstruction of Continuous-Time Signals

Discrete-Time Processing of Continuous-Time Signals

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Converters

Sampling and Reconstruction of Continuous-Time Bandpass Signals

Sampling of Discrete-Time Signals

Oversampling A/D and D/A Converters

**Chapter 7 The Discrete Fourier Transform: Its Properties And Applications**

Frequency Domain Sampling ,The Discrete Fourier Transform

Properties of the DFT

Linear Filtering Methods Based on the DFT

Frequency Analysis of Signals Using the DFT

The Discrete Cosine Transform

**Chapter** **8 Efficient Computaiton Of The Dft: Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms**

Efficient Computation of the DFT: FFT Algorithms

Applications of FFT Algorithms

A Linear Filtering Approach to Computation of the DFT

Quantization Effects in the Computation of the DFT

**Chapter 9 Implementation Of Discrete-Time Systems**

Structures for the Realization of Discrete-Time Systems

Structures for FIR Systems

Structures for IIR Systems

Representation of Numbers

Quantization of Filter Coefficients

Round-Off Effects in Digital Filters

**Chapter 10 Design Of Digital Filers**

Design of FIR Filter

Design of IIR Filters From Analog Filters

Frequency Transformations

**Chapter 11 Multirate Digital Signal Processing**

Decimation by a Factor D

Interpolation by a Factor I

Sampling Rate Conversion by a Rational Factor I/D

Implementation of Sampling Rate Conversion

Multistage Implementation of Sampling Rate Conversion

Sampling Rate Conversion of Bandpass Signals

Sampling Rate conversion by an Arbitrary Factor

Applications of Sampling Rate Conversion

Digital Filter Banks

Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank

M-Channel QMF Bank

**Chapter 12 Linear Prediction And Optimum Linear Filters**

Random Signals, Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

Innovations Representation of a Stationary Random Process

Forward and Backward Linear Prediction

Solution of the Normal Equations

Properties of the Linear Prediction-Error Filters

AR Lattice and ARMA Lattice-Ladder Filters

Wiener Filters for Filtering and Prediction

**Chapter 13 Adaptive Filters**

Applications of Adaptive Filters

Adaptive Direct-Form FIR Filters-The LMS Algorithm

Adaptive Direct-Form FIR Filters-RLS Algorithms

Adaptive Lattice-Ladder Filters

**Chapter 14 Power spectrum estimation **

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