**Introduction **

This book is designed to serve as a first course in an electrical engineering or an electrical engineering and computer science curriculum, providing students at the sophomore level a transition from the world of physics to the world of electronics and computation. The book attempts to satisfy two goals: Combine circuits and electronics into a single, unified treatment, and establish a strong connection with the contemporary worlds of both digital and analog systems. These goals arise from the observation that the approach to introducing electrical engineering through a course in traditional circuit analysis is fast becoming obsolete. Our world has gone digital. A large fraction of the student population in electrical engineering is destined for industry or graduate study in digital electronics or computer systems. Even those students who remain in core electrical engineering are heavily influenced by the digital domain. Because of this elevated focus on the digital domain, basic electrical engineering education must change in two ways: First, the traditional approach to teaching circuits and electronics without regard to the digital domain must be replaced by one that stresses the circuits foundations common to both the digital and analog domains. Because most of the fundamental concepts in circuits and electronics are equally applicable to both the digital and the analog domains, this means that, primarily, we must change the way in which we motivate circuits and electronics to emphasize their broader impact on digital systems. For example, although the traditional way of discussing the dynamics of first-order RC circuits appears unmotivated to the student headed into digital systems, the same pedagogy is exciting when motivated by the switching behavior of a switch and resistor inverter driving a non-ideal capacitive wire. Similarly, we motivate the study of the step response of a second-order RLC circuit by observing the behavior of a MOS inverter when pin parasitics are included. Second, given the additional demands of computer engineering, many departments can ill-afford the luxury of separate courses on circuits and on electronics. Rather, they might be combined into one course. treat networks of passive elements such as resistors, sources, capacitors, and inductors. Electronics courses treat networks of both passive elements and active elements such as MOS transistors. Although this book offers a unified treatment for circuits and electronics, we have taken some pains to allow the crafting of a two-semester sequence one focused on circuits and another on electronics from the same basic content in the book. Using the concept of ‘‘abstraction,’’ the book attempts to form a bridge between the world of physics and the world of large computer systems. In particular, it attempts to unify electrical engineering and computer science as the art of creating and exploiting successive abstractions to manage the complexity of building useful electrical systems. Computer systems are simply one type of electrical system. In crafting a single text for both circuits and electronics, the book takes the approach of covering a few important topics in depth, choosing more contemporary devices when possible. For example, it uses the MOSFET as the basic active device, and relegates discussions of other devices such as bipolar transistors to the exercises and examples. Furthermore, to allow students to understand basic circuit concepts without the trappings of specific devices, it introduces several abstract devices as examples and exercises. We believe this approach will allow students to tackle designs with many other extant devices and those that are yet to be invented

**CONTENTS **

**Chapter 1 The Circuit Abstraction .**

1.1 The Power of Abstraction

1.2 The Lumped Circuit Abstraction

1.3 The Lumped Matter Discipline

1.4 Limitations of the Lumped Circuit Abstraction

1.5 Practical Two-Terminal Elements ….

1.5.1 Batteries

1.5.2 Linear Resistors

1.5.3 Associated Variables Convention

1.6 Ideal Two-Terminal Elements ..

1.6.1 Ideal Voltage Sources, Wires, and Resistors

1.6.2 Element Laws ..

1.6.3 The Current Source Another Ideal Two-Terminal Element

1.8 Signal Representation

1.8.1 Analog Signals

1.8.2 Digital Signals Value Discretization

**Chapter 2 Resistive Networks **

2.1 Terminology

2.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws

2.2.1 KCL

2.2.2 KVL

2.3 Circuit Analysis: Basic Method .

2.3.1 Single-Resistor Circuits

2.3.2 Quick Intuitive Analysis of Single-Resistor Circuits

2.3.3 Energy Conservation

2.3.4 Voltage and Current Dividers .

2.3.5 A More Complex Circuit

2.4 Intuitive Method of Circuit Analysis: Series and Parallel Simplification .

More Circuit Examples

2.6 Dependent Sources and the Control Concept .

2.6.1 Circuits with Dependent Sources

A Formulation Suitable for a Computer Solution

**Chapter 3 Network Theorems **

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Node Voltage

3.3 The Node Method

3.3.1 Node Method: A Second Example .

3.3.2 Floating Independent Voltage Sources

3.3.3 Dependent Sources and the Node Method

3.3.4 The Conductance and Source Matrices

3.4 Loop Method

3.5 Superposition .

3.5.1 Superposition Rules for Dependent Sources .

3.6 Thévenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem .

3.6.1 The Thévenin Equivalent Network ..

3.6.2 The Norton Equivalent Network .

3.6.3 More Examples

3.7 Summary and Exercises .

**Chapter 4 Analysis of Nonlinear Circuits **

4.1 Introduction to Nonlinear Elements .

4.2 Analytical Solutions

4.3 Graphical Analysis

4.4 Piecewise Linear Analysis

4.4.1 Improved Piecewise Linear Models for Nonlinear Elements

4.5 Incremental Analysis

**Chapter 5 The Digital Abstraction **

5.1 Voltage Levels and the Static Discipline

5.2 Boolean Logic

5.3 Combinational Gates

5.4 Standard Sum-of-Products Representation

5.5 Simplifying Logic Expressions

5.6 Number Representation

**Chapter 6 The MOSFET Switch **

6.1 The Switch

6.2 Logic Functions Using Switches

6.3 The MOSFET Device and Its S Model

6.4 MOSFET Switch Implementation of Logic Gates

6.5 Static Analysis Using the S Model

6.6 The SR Model of the MOSFET

6.7 Physical Structure of the MOSFET

6.8 Static Analysis Using the SR Model

6.8.1 Static Analysis of the NAND Gate Using the SR Model.

6.9 Signal Restoration, Gain, and Nonlinearity

6.9.1 Signal Restoration and Gain

6.9.2 Signal Restoration and Nonlinearity .7

6.9.3 Buffer Transfer Characteristics and the Static Discipline

6.9.4 Inverter Transfer Characteristics and the Static Discipline

6.10 Power Consumption in Logic Gates

6.11 Active Pullups

**Chapter 7 The MOSFET Amplifier **

7.1 Signal Amplification

7.2 Review of Dependent Sources .

7.3 Actual MOSFET Characteristics

7.4 The Switch-Current Source (SCS) MOSFET Model .

7.5 The MOSFET Amplifier

7.5.1 Biasing the MOSFET Amplifier

7.5.2 The Amplifier Abstraction and the Saturation Discipline

7.6 Large-Signal Analysis of the MOSFET Amplifier .

7.6.1 vIN Versus vOUT in the Saturation Region

7.6.2 Valid Input and Output Voltage Ranges

7.6.3 Alternative Method for Valid Input and Output Voltage Ranges

7.7 Operating Point Selection

7.8 Switch Unified (SU) MOSFET Model

**Chapter 8 The Small-Signal Model **

8.1 Overview of the Nonlinear MOSFET Amplifier

8.2 The Small-Signal Model

8.2.1 Small-Signal Circuit Representation

8.2.2 Small-Signal Circuit for the MOSFET Amplifier

8.2.3 Selecting an Operating Point

8.2.4 Input and Output Resistance, Current and Power Gain

8.3 Summary and Exercises

** Chapter 9 Energy Storage Elements **

9.1 Constitutive Laws

9.1.1 Capacitors

9.1.2 Inductors

9.2 Series and Parallel Connections

9.2.1 Capacitors

9.2.2 Inductors

9.3 Special Examples

9.3.1 MOSFET Gate Capacitance

9.3.2 Wiring Loop Inductance

9.3.3 IC Wiring Capacitance and Inductance.

9.3.4 Transformers

9.4 Simple Circuit Examples.

Sinusoidal Inputs

9.4.2 Step Inputs

9.4.3 Impulse Inputs

9.4.4 Role Reversal

9.5 Energy, Charge, and Flux Conservation

**Chapter 10 First-Order Transients in Linear Electrical Networks**

10.1 Analysis of RC Circuits .

10.1.1 Parallel RC Circuit, Step Input

10.1.2 RC Discharge Transient .

10.1.3 Series RC Circuit, Step Input .

10.1.4 Series RC Circuit, Square-Wave Input .

10.2 Analysis of RL Circuits

10.2.1 Series RL Circuit, Step Input .

10.3 Intuitive Analysis .

10.4 Propagation Delay and the Digital Abstraction ..

10.4.1 Definitions of Propagation Delays .

10.4.2 Computing tpd from the SRC MOSFET Model

10.5 State and State Variables .

10.5.1 The Concept of State

10.5.2 Computer Analysis Using the State Equation

10.5.3 Zero-Input and Zero-State Response .

10.5.4 Solution by Integrating Factors .

10.6 Additional Examples ..

10.6.1 Effect of Wire Inductance in Digital Circuits .

10.6.2 Ramp Inputs and Linearity

10.6.3 Response of an RC Circuit to Short Pulses and the Impulse Response

10.6.4 Intuitive Method for the Impulse Response .

10.6.5 Clock Signals and Clock Fan-out

10.6.6 RC Response to Decaying Exponential

10.6.7 Series RL Circuit with Sine-Wave Input …

10.7 Digital Memory

10.7.1 The Concept of Digital State .

10.7.2 An Abstract Digital Memory Element

10.7.3 Design of the Digital Memory Element

10.7.4 A Static Memory Element

**chapter 11 Energy and Power in Digital Circuits **

11.1 Power and Energy Relations for a Simple RC Circuit

11.2 Average Power in an RC Circuit .

11.2.1 Energy Dissipated During Interval T1

11.2.2 Energy Dissipated During Interval T2

11.2.3 Total Energy Dissipated .

11.3 Power Dissipation in Logic Gates .

11.3.1 Static Power Dissipation

11.3.2 Total Power Dissipation

11.4 NMOS Logic .

11.5 CMOS Logic .

11.5.1 CMOS Logic Gate Design .

**Chapter 12 Transients in Second-Order Circuits .**

12.1 Undriven LC Circuit.

12.2 Undriven, Series RLC Circuit

12.2.1 Under-Damped Dynamics

12.2.2 Over-Damped Dynamics .

12.2.3 Critically-Damped Dynamics

12.3 Stored Energy in Transient, Series RLC Circuit

12.4 Undriven, Parallel RLC Circuit .

12.4.1 Under-Damped Dynamics .

12.4.2 Over-Damped Dynamics .

12.4.3 Critically-Damped Dynamics .

12.5 Driven, Series RLC Circuit

12.5.1 Step Response

12.5.2 Impulse Response

12.6 Driven, Parallel RLC Circuit

12.6.1 Step Response .

12.6.2 Impulse Response .

12.7 Intuitive Analysis of Second-Order Circuits .

12.8 Two-Capacitor or Two-Inductor Circuits .

12.9 State-Variable Method .

12.10 State-Space Analysis .

12.10.1 Numerical Solution

12.11 Higher-Order Circuits

**Chapter 13 Sinusoidal Steady State: Impedance and Frequency Response . **

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Analysis Using Complex Exponential Drive .

13.2.1 Homogeneous Solution .

13.2.2 Particular Solution .

13.2.3 Complete Solution

13.2.4 Sinusoidal Steady-State Response .

13.3 The Boxes: Impedance

13.3.1 Example: Series RL Circuit .

13.3.2 Example: Another RC Circuit

13.3.3 Example: RC Circuit with Two Capacitors .

13.3.4 Example: Analysis of Small Signal Amplifier with Capacitive Load .

13.4 Frequency Response: Magnitude and Phase versus Frequency

13.4.1 Frequency Response of Capacitors, Inductors, and Resistors

13.4.2 Intuitively Sketching the Frequency Response of RC and RL Circuits .

13.4.3 The Bode Plot: Sketching the Frequency Response of General Functions

13.5 Filters

13.5.1 Filter Design Example: Crossover Network

13.5.2 Decoupling Amplifier Stages

13.6 Time Domain versus Frequency Domain Analysis using Voltage-Divider Example

13.6.1 Frequency Domain Analysis

13.6.2 Time Domain Analysis

13.6.3 Comparing Time Domain and Frequency Domain Analyses

13.7 Power and Energy in an Impedance

13.7.1 Arbitrary Impedance

13.7.2 Pure Resistance

13.7.3 Pure Reactance

13.7.4 Example: Power in an RC Circuit

** chapter 14 Sinusoidal Steady State: Resonance . **

14.1 Parallel RLC, Sinusoidal Response

14.1.1 Homogeneous Solution

14.1.2 Particular Solution

14.1.3 Total Solution for the Parallel RLC Circuit .

14.2 Frequency Response for Resonant Systems .

14.2.1 The Resonant Region of the Frequency Response

14.3 Series RLC

14.4 The Bode Plot for Resonant Functions

14.5 Filter Examples

14.5.1 Band-pass Filter

14.5.2 Low-pass Filter .

14.5.3 High-pass Filter

14.5.4 Notch Filter

14.6 Stored Energy in a Resonant Circuit .

14.7 Summary and Exercises

**chapter 15 The Operational Amplifier Abstraction **

15.1 Introduction .

15.1.1 Historical Perspective

15.2 Device Properties of the Operational Amplifier .

15.2.1 The Op Amp Model .

15.3 Simple Op Amp Circuits .

15.3.1 The Non-Inverting Op Amp

15.3.2 A Second Example: The Inverting Connection

15.3.3 Sensitivity

15.3.4 A Special Case: The Voltage Follower

15.3.5 An Additional Constraint: v+ − v−

15.4 Input and Output Resistances

15.4.1 Output Resistance, Inverting Op Amp

15.4.2 Input Resistance, Inverting Connection

15.4.3 Input and Output R For Non-Inverting Op Amp

15.4.4 Generalization on Input Resistance

15.4.5 Example: Op Amp Current Source

15.5 Additional Examples

15.5.1 Adder

15.5.2 Subtracter

15.6 Op Amp RC Circuits

15.6.1 Op Amp Integrator

15.6.2 Op Amp Differentiator

15.6.3 An RC Active Filter

15.6.4 The RC Active Filter Impedance Analysis

15.6.5 Sallen-Key Filter

15.7 Op Amp in Saturation

15.7.1 Op Amp Integrator in Saturation

15.8 Positive Feedback

15.8.1 RC Oscillator

15.9 Two-Ports

**Chapter 16 Diodes **

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Semiconductor Diode Characteristics

16.3 Analysis of Diode Circuits .

16.3.1 Method of Assumed States

16.4 Nonlinear Analysis with RL and RC

16.4.1 Peak Detector

16.4.2 Example: Clamping Circuit

16.4.3 A Switched Power Supply using a Diode

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