This book is designed to serve as a first course in an electrical engineering or an electrical engineering and computer science curriculum, providing students at the sophomore level a transition from the world of physics to the world of electronics and computation. The book attempts to satisfy two goals: Combine circuits and electronics into a single, unified treatment, and establish a strong connection with the contemporary worlds of both digital and analog systems. These goals arise from the observation that the approach to introducing electrical engineering through a course in traditional circuit analysis is fast becoming obsolete. Our world has gone digital. A large fraction of the student population in electrical engineering is destined for industry or graduate study in digital electronics or computer systems. Even those students who remain in core electrical engineering are heavily influenced by the digital domain. Because of this elevated focus on the digital domain, basic electrical engineering education must change in two ways: First, the traditional approach to teaching circuits and electronics without regard to the digital domain must be replaced by one that stresses the circuits foundations common to both the digital and analog domains. Because most of the fundamental concepts in circuits and electronics are equally applicable to both the digital and the analog domains, this means that, primarily, we must change the way in which we motivate circuits and electronics to emphasize their broader impact on digital systems. For example, although the traditional way of discussing the dynamics of first-order RC circuits appears unmotivated to the student headed into digital systems, the same pedagogy is exciting when motivated by the switching behavior of a switch and resistor inverter driving a non-ideal capacitive wire. Similarly, we motivate the study of the step response of a second-order RLC circuit by observing the behavior of a MOS inverter when pin parasitics are included. Second, given the additional demands of computer engineering, many departments can ill-afford the luxury of separate courses on circuits and on electronics. Rather, they might be combined into one course. treat networks of passive elements such as resistors, sources, capacitors, and inductors. Electronics courses treat networks of both passive elements and active elements such as MOS transistors. Although this book offers a unified treatment for circuits and electronics, we have taken some pains to allow the crafting of a two-semester sequence one focused on circuits and another on electronics from the same basic content in the book. Using the concept of ‘‘abstraction,’’ the book attempts to form a bridge between the world of physics and the world of large computer systems. In particular, it attempts to unify electrical engineering and computer science as the art of creating and exploiting successive abstractions to manage the complexity of building useful electrical systems. Computer systems are simply one type of electrical system. In crafting a single text for both circuits and electronics, the book takes the approach of covering a few important topics in depth, choosing more contemporary devices when possible. For example, it uses the MOSFET as the basic active device, and relegates discussions of other devices such as bipolar transistors to the exercises and examples. Furthermore, to allow students to understand basic circuit concepts without the trappings of specific devices, it introduces several abstract devices as examples and exercises. We believe this approach will allow students to tackle designs with many other extant devices and those that are yet to be invented
Chapter 1 The Circuit Abstraction .
1.1 The Power of Abstraction
1.2 The Lumped Circuit Abstraction
1.3 The Lumped Matter Discipline
1.4 Limitations of the Lumped Circuit Abstraction
1.5 Practical Two-Terminal Elements ….
1.5.2 Linear Resistors
1.5.3 Associated Variables Convention
1.6 Ideal Two-Terminal Elements ..
1.6.1 Ideal Voltage Sources, Wires, and Resistors
1.6.2 Element Laws ..
1.6.3 The Current Source Another Ideal Two-Terminal Element
1.8 Signal Representation
1.8.1 Analog Signals
1.8.2 Digital Signals Value Discretization
Chapter 2 Resistive Networks
2.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws
2.3 Circuit Analysis: Basic Method .
2.3.1 Single-Resistor Circuits
2.3.2 Quick Intuitive Analysis of Single-Resistor Circuits
2.3.3 Energy Conservation
2.3.4 Voltage and Current Dividers .
2.3.5 A More Complex Circuit
2.4 Intuitive Method of Circuit Analysis: Series and Parallel Simplification .
More Circuit Examples
2.6 Dependent Sources and the Control Concept .
2.6.1 Circuits with Dependent Sources
A Formulation Suitable for a Computer Solution
Chapter 3 Network Theorems
3.2 The Node Voltage
3.3 The Node Method
3.3.1 Node Method: A Second Example .
3.3.2 Floating Independent Voltage Sources
3.3.3 Dependent Sources and the Node Method
3.3.4 The Conductance and Source Matrices
3.4 Loop Method
3.5 Superposition .
3.5.1 Superposition Rules for Dependent Sources .
3.6 Thévenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem .
3.6.1 The Thévenin Equivalent Network ..
3.6.2 The Norton Equivalent Network .
3.6.3 More Examples
3.7 Summary and Exercises .
Chapter 4 Analysis of Nonlinear Circuits
4.1 Introduction to Nonlinear Elements .
4.2 Analytical Solutions
4.3 Graphical Analysis
4.4 Piecewise Linear Analysis
4.4.1 Improved Piecewise Linear Models for Nonlinear Elements
4.5 Incremental Analysis
Chapter 5 The Digital Abstraction
5.1 Voltage Levels and the Static Discipline
5.2 Boolean Logic
5.3 Combinational Gates
5.4 Standard Sum-of-Products Representation
5.5 Simplifying Logic Expressions
5.6 Number Representation
Chapter 6 The MOSFET Switch
6.1 The Switch
6.2 Logic Functions Using Switches
6.3 The MOSFET Device and Its S Model
6.4 MOSFET Switch Implementation of Logic Gates
6.5 Static Analysis Using the S Model
6.6 The SR Model of the MOSFET
6.7 Physical Structure of the MOSFET
6.8 Static Analysis Using the SR Model
6.8.1 Static Analysis of the NAND Gate Using the SR Model.
6.9 Signal Restoration, Gain, and Nonlinearity
6.9.1 Signal Restoration and Gain
6.9.2 Signal Restoration and Nonlinearity .7
6.9.3 Buffer Transfer Characteristics and the Static Discipline
6.9.4 Inverter Transfer Characteristics and the Static Discipline
6.10 Power Consumption in Logic Gates
6.11 Active Pullups
Chapter 7 The MOSFET Amplifier
7.1 Signal Amplification
7.2 Review of Dependent Sources .
7.3 Actual MOSFET Characteristics
7.4 The Switch-Current Source (SCS) MOSFET Model .
7.5 The MOSFET Amplifier
7.5.1 Biasing the MOSFET Amplifier
7.5.2 The Amplifier Abstraction and the Saturation Discipline
7.6 Large-Signal Analysis of the MOSFET Amplifier .
7.6.1 vIN Versus vOUT in the Saturation Region
7.6.2 Valid Input and Output Voltage Ranges
7.6.3 Alternative Method for Valid Input and Output Voltage Ranges
7.7 Operating Point Selection
7.8 Switch Unified (SU) MOSFET Model
Chapter 8 The Small-Signal Model
8.1 Overview of the Nonlinear MOSFET Amplifier
8.2 The Small-Signal Model
8.2.1 Small-Signal Circuit Representation
8.2.2 Small-Signal Circuit for the MOSFET Amplifier
8.2.3 Selecting an Operating Point
8.2.4 Input and Output Resistance, Current and Power Gain
8.3 Summary and Exercises
Chapter 9 Energy Storage Elements
9.1 Constitutive Laws
9.2 Series and Parallel Connections
9.3 Special Examples
9.3.1 MOSFET Gate Capacitance
9.3.2 Wiring Loop Inductance
9.3.3 IC Wiring Capacitance and Inductance.
9.4 Simple Circuit Examples.
9.4.2 Step Inputs
9.4.3 Impulse Inputs
9.4.4 Role Reversal
9.5 Energy, Charge, and Flux Conservation
Chapter 10 First-Order Transients in Linear Electrical Networks
10.1 Analysis of RC Circuits .
10.1.1 Parallel RC Circuit, Step Input
10.1.2 RC Discharge Transient .
10.1.3 Series RC Circuit, Step Input .
10.1.4 Series RC Circuit, Square-Wave Input .
10.2 Analysis of RL Circuits
10.2.1 Series RL Circuit, Step Input .
10.3 Intuitive Analysis .
10.4 Propagation Delay and the Digital Abstraction ..
10.4.1 Definitions of Propagation Delays .
10.4.2 Computing tpd from the SRC MOSFET Model
10.5 State and State Variables .
10.5.1 The Concept of State
10.5.2 Computer Analysis Using the State Equation
10.5.3 Zero-Input and Zero-State Response .
10.5.4 Solution by Integrating Factors .
10.6 Additional Examples ..
10.6.1 Effect of Wire Inductance in Digital Circuits .
10.6.2 Ramp Inputs and Linearity
10.6.3 Response of an RC Circuit to Short Pulses and the Impulse Response
10.6.4 Intuitive Method for the Impulse Response .
10.6.5 Clock Signals and Clock Fan-out
10.6.6 RC Response to Decaying Exponential
10.6.7 Series RL Circuit with Sine-Wave Input …
10.7 Digital Memory
10.7.1 The Concept of Digital State .
10.7.2 An Abstract Digital Memory Element
10.7.3 Design of the Digital Memory Element
10.7.4 A Static Memory Element
chapter 11 Energy and Power in Digital Circuits
11.1 Power and Energy Relations for a Simple RC Circuit
11.2 Average Power in an RC Circuit .
11.2.1 Energy Dissipated During Interval T1
11.2.2 Energy Dissipated During Interval T2
11.2.3 Total Energy Dissipated .
11.3 Power Dissipation in Logic Gates .
11.3.1 Static Power Dissipation
11.3.2 Total Power Dissipation
11.4 NMOS Logic .
11.5 CMOS Logic .
11.5.1 CMOS Logic Gate Design .
Chapter 12 Transients in Second-Order Circuits .
12.1 Undriven LC Circuit.
12.2 Undriven, Series RLC Circuit
12.2.1 Under-Damped Dynamics
12.2.2 Over-Damped Dynamics .
12.2.3 Critically-Damped Dynamics
12.3 Stored Energy in Transient, Series RLC Circuit
12.4 Undriven, Parallel RLC Circuit .
12.4.1 Under-Damped Dynamics .
12.4.2 Over-Damped Dynamics .
12.4.3 Critically-Damped Dynamics .
12.5 Driven, Series RLC Circuit
12.5.1 Step Response
12.5.2 Impulse Response
12.6 Driven, Parallel RLC Circuit
12.6.1 Step Response .
12.6.2 Impulse Response .
12.7 Intuitive Analysis of Second-Order Circuits .
12.8 Two-Capacitor or Two-Inductor Circuits .
12.9 State-Variable Method .
12.10 State-Space Analysis .
12.10.1 Numerical Solution
12.11 Higher-Order Circuits
Chapter 13 Sinusoidal Steady State: Impedance and Frequency Response .
13.2 Analysis Using Complex Exponential Drive .
13.2.1 Homogeneous Solution .
13.2.2 Particular Solution .
13.2.3 Complete Solution
13.2.4 Sinusoidal Steady-State Response .
13.3 The Boxes: Impedance
13.3.1 Example: Series RL Circuit .
13.3.2 Example: Another RC Circuit
13.3.3 Example: RC Circuit with Two Capacitors .
13.3.4 Example: Analysis of Small Signal Amplifier with Capacitive Load .
13.4 Frequency Response: Magnitude and Phase versus Frequency
13.4.1 Frequency Response of Capacitors, Inductors, and Resistors
13.4.2 Intuitively Sketching the Frequency Response of RC and RL Circuits .
13.4.3 The Bode Plot: Sketching the Frequency Response of General Functions
13.5.1 Filter Design Example: Crossover Network
13.5.2 Decoupling Amplifier Stages
13.6 Time Domain versus Frequency Domain Analysis using Voltage-Divider Example
13.6.1 Frequency Domain Analysis
13.6.2 Time Domain Analysis
13.6.3 Comparing Time Domain and Frequency Domain Analyses
13.7 Power and Energy in an Impedance
13.7.1 Arbitrary Impedance
13.7.2 Pure Resistance
13.7.3 Pure Reactance
13.7.4 Example: Power in an RC Circuit
chapter 14 Sinusoidal Steady State: Resonance .
14.1 Parallel RLC, Sinusoidal Response
14.1.1 Homogeneous Solution
14.1.2 Particular Solution
14.1.3 Total Solution for the Parallel RLC Circuit .
14.2 Frequency Response for Resonant Systems .
14.2.1 The Resonant Region of the Frequency Response
14.3 Series RLC
14.4 The Bode Plot for Resonant Functions
14.5 Filter Examples
14.5.1 Band-pass Filter
14.5.2 Low-pass Filter .
14.5.3 High-pass Filter
14.5.4 Notch Filter
14.6 Stored Energy in a Resonant Circuit .
14.7 Summary and Exercises
chapter 15 The Operational Amplifier Abstraction
15.1 Introduction .
15.1.1 Historical Perspective
15.2 Device Properties of the Operational Amplifier .
15.2.1 The Op Amp Model .
15.3 Simple Op Amp Circuits .
15.3.1 The Non-Inverting Op Amp
15.3.2 A Second Example: The Inverting Connection
15.3.4 A Special Case: The Voltage Follower
15.3.5 An Additional Constraint: v+ − v−
15.4 Input and Output Resistances
15.4.1 Output Resistance, Inverting Op Amp
15.4.2 Input Resistance, Inverting Connection
15.4.3 Input and Output R For Non-Inverting Op Amp
15.4.4 Generalization on Input Resistance
15.4.5 Example: Op Amp Current Source
15.5 Additional Examples
15.6 Op Amp RC Circuits
15.6.1 Op Amp Integrator
15.6.2 Op Amp Differentiator
15.6.3 An RC Active Filter
15.6.4 The RC Active Filter Impedance Analysis
15.6.5 Sallen-Key Filter
15.7 Op Amp in Saturation
15.7.1 Op Amp Integrator in Saturation
15.8 Positive Feedback
15.8.1 RC Oscillator
Chapter 16 Diodes
16.2 Semiconductor Diode Characteristics
16.3 Analysis of Diode Circuits .
16.3.1 Method of Assumed States
16.4 Nonlinear Analysis with RL and RC
16.4.1 Peak Detector
16.4.2 Example: Clamping Circuit
16.4.3 A Switched Power Supply using a Diode
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