Download Fundamentals of Telecommunications By Roger L. Freeman


This book is an entry-level text on the technology of telecommunications. It has been crafted with the newcomer in mind. The eighteen chapters of text have been prepared for high-school graduates who understand algebra, logarithms, and basic electrical principles such as Ohm’s law. However, many users require support in these areas so Appendices A and B review the essentials of electricity and mathematics through logarithms. This material was placed in the appendices so as not to distract from the main theme: the technology of telecommunication systems. Another topic that many in the industry find difficult is the use of decibels and derived units. Appendix C provides the reader with a basic understanding of decibels and their applications. The only mathematics necessary is an understanding of the powers of ten. To meet my stated objective, whereby this text acts as a tutor for those with no experience in telecommunications, every term and concept is carefully explained. Nearly all terminology can be traced to the latest edition of the IEEE dictionary and/ or to the several ITU (International Telecommunication Union) glossaries. Other tools I use are analogies and real-life experiences. We hear the expression “going back to basics.” This book addresses the basics and it is written in such a way that it brings along the novice. The structure of the book is purposeful; later chapters build on earlier material. The book begins with some general concepts in telecommunications: What is connectivity, What do nodes do? From there we move on to the voice network embodied in the public switched telecommunications network (PSTN), digital transmission and networks, an introduction to data communications, followed by enterprise networks. It continues with switching and signaling, the transmission transport, cable television, cellular/ PCS, ATM, and network management. CCITT Signaling System No. 7 is a data network used exclusively for signaling. It was located after our generic discussion of data and enterprise networks. The novice would be lost in the explanation of System 7 without a basic understanding of data communications. I have borrowed heavily from my many enriching years of giving seminars, both at Northeastern University and at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. The advantage of the classroom is that the instructor can stop to reiterate or explain a sticky point. Not so with a book. As a result, I have made every effort to spot those difficult issues, and then give clear explanations. Brevity has been a challenge for me. Telecommunications is developing explosively. My goal has been to hit the high points and leave the details to my other texts.


Chapter 1 Introductory Concepts 1

What Is Telecommunication?

Telecommunication Will Touch Everybody

Introductory Topics in Telecommunications

End-Users, Nodes, and Connectivities

Telephone Numbering and Routing

Use of Tandem Switches in a Local Area Connectivity

Busy Hour and Grade of Service

Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Full Duplex

One-Way and Two-Way Circuits

Network Topologies

Variations in Traffic Flow

Quality of Service

Standardization in Telecommunications

Organization of the PSTN in the United States

Points of Presence

Chapter 2 Signals Convey Intelligence

Signals in Everyday Life

Basic Concepts of Electricity for Communications

Early Sources of Electrical Current

Electrical Telegraph: An Early Form of Long-distance Communications

What Is Frequency?

Electrical Signals

Introduction to Transmission


Binary Digital Signals

Introduction to Transporting Electrical Signals

Wire Pair

Coaxial Cable Transmission

Fiber Optic Cable

Radio Transmission

Chapter 3 Quality of Service and Telecommunication Impairments

Quality of Service: Voice, Data, and Image

Introduction to Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Voice Transmission

Data Circuits

Video (Television)

Three Basic Impairments and How They Affect the End-User

Amplitude Distortion

Phase Distortion

Noise Level

Typical Levels

Echo and Singing

Chapter 4 Transmission and Switching:

Cornerstones of a Network

Transmission and Switching Defined

Traffic Intensity Defines the Size of Switches and the Capacity of Transmission Links

Traffic Studies

Discussion of the Erlangen and Poisson Traffic Formulas

Waiting Systems (Queuing)

Dimensioning and Efficiency

Quantifying Data Traffic

Introduction to Switching

Basic Switching Requirements

Concentration and Expansion

Essential Functions of a Local Switch

Some Introductory Switching Concepts

Early Automatic Switching Systems

Common Control (Hard-Wired)

Stored Program Control

Concentrators and Remote Switching

Some Essential Concepts in Transmission


Two-Wire and Four-Wire Transmission

Introduction to Multiplexing


Frequency Division Multiplex

Pilot Tones

Comments on the Employment and Disadvantages of FDM Systems

Chapter 5 Transmission Aspects of Voice Telephony

Definition of the Voice Channel

Human Voice

Operation of a Telephone Subset

Subset Mouthpiece or Transmitter

Telephone Earpiece or Receiver

Subscriber Loop Design

Basic Design Considerations

Subscriber Loop Length Limits

Designing a Subscriber Loop

Extending the Subscriber Loop

Cookbook Design Methods for Subscriber Loops

Current North American Loop Design Rules

Design of Local Area Wire-Pair Trunks (Junctions)

Inductive Loading of Wire-Pair Trunks (Junctions)

Local Trunk (Junction) Design Considerations

VF Repeaters (Amplifiers)

Chapter 6 Digital Networks

Introduction to Digital Transmission

Two Different PCM Standards

Basis of Pulse Code Modulation




PCM System Operation

Line Code

Signal-to-Gaussian-Noise Ratio on PCM Repeatered Lines

Regenerative Repeaters

PCM System Enhancements

Enhancements to DS1

Enhancements to E1

Higher-Order PCM Multiplex Systems

Stuffing and Justification

North American Higher-Level Multiplex

European E1 Digital Hierarchy

Long-Distance PCM Transmission

Transmission Limitations

Jitter and Wander


Thermal Noise


Digital Loop Carrier

New Versions of DSL

Digital Switching

Advantages and Issues of Digital Switching

Approaches to PCM Switching

Review of Some Digital Switching Concepts

Digital Network

Technical Requirements of the Digital Network

Digital Network Performance Requirements

Chapter 7 Signaling

What Is the Purpose of Signaling

Defining the Functional Areas

Supervisory Signaling

Address Signaling

Call Progress—Audible-Visual

Signaling Techniques

Conveying Signaling Information

Evolution of Signaling

Subscriber Call Progress Tones and PushButton Codes (North America)

Compelled Signaling

Concepts of Link-by-Link and End-to-End Signaling

Effects of Numbering on Signaling  .

Associated and Disassociated Channel Signaling

Signaling in the Subscriber Loop

Background and Purpose

Metallic Trunk Signaling

Basic Loop Signaling

Reverse-Battery Signaling

Chapter 8 Local and Long-Distance Networks

Makeup of the PSTN

Evolving Local Network

What Affects Local Network Design?

Design of Long-Distance Networks

Three Design Steps

Link Limitation

Numbering Plan Areas

Exchange Location


Network Design Procedures

Traffic Routing in a National Network

New Routing Techniques

Logic of Routing

Call-Control Procedures


Transmission Factors in Long-Distance Telephony.



Causes of Echo and Singing

Transmission Design to Control Echo and Singing

Introduction to Transmission-Loss Engineering

Loss Plan for Digital Networks (United States)

Chapter 9 Concepts in Transmission Transport

Radio Systems 204 9.2.1

Scope 204 9.2.2

Introduction to Radio Transmission 204 9.2.3

Line-of-Sight Microwave 205 9.2.4

Fades, Fading and Fade Margins 221 9.2.5

Diversity and Hot-Standby 223 9.2.6

Frequency Planning and Frequency Assignment

Satellite Communications 225 9.3.1

Satellite 226 9.3.3

Three Basic Technical Problems 226 9.3.4

Frequency Bands: Desirable and Available 228 9.3.5

Multiple Access to a Communication Satellite 228 9.3.6

Earth Station Link Engineering 231 9.3.7

Digital Communication by Satellite 237 9.3.8

Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Networks 238 9.4

Fiber Optic Communication Links 240 9.4.1

Applications 240 9.4.2

Introduction to Optical Fiber as a Transmission Medium 241 9.4.3

Types of Optical Fiber 243 9.4.4

Splices and Connectors 244 9.4.5

Light Sources 245 9.4.6

Light Detectors 247 9.4.7

Optical Fiber Amplifiers 248 9.4.8

Wavelength Division Multiplexing 249 9.4.9

Fiber Optic Link Design 250 9.5

Coaxial Cable Transmission Systems 253 9.5.1

Cable Characteristics 254 9.6

Transmission Media

Chapter 10 Data Communications 261 10.1

The Bit: A Review 261 10.3 Removing Ambiguity: Binary Convention 262 10.4

Coding 262 10.5

Errors in Data Transmission 264 10.5.1

Nature of Errors 265 10.5.3

Error Detection and Correction 265 10.6

dc Nature of Data Transmission 268 10.6.1

dc Loops 268 10.6.2

Neutral and Polar dc Data Transmission Systems 268 10.7

Binary Transmission and the Concept of Time 269 10.7.1

Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission 270 10.7.3

Bits, Bauds, and Symbols

Digital Data Waveforms

Data Interface: The Physical Layer

Digital Transmission on an Analog Channel

Modulation–Demodulation Schemes

Critical Impairments to the Transmission of Data

Channel Capacity

Modem Selection Considerations


Data Transmission on the Digital Network

What Are Data Protocols?

Basic Protocol Functions

Open Systems Interconnection

High-Level Data Link Control: A Typical Link-Layer Protocol

Chapter 11 Enterprise Networks I: Local Area Networks

What Do Enterprise Networks Do?

Local Area Networks (LANs)

LAN Topologies

Baseband LAN Transmission Considerations

Overview of ANSI/IEEE LAN Protocols


How LAN Protocols Relate to OSI

Logical Link Control

LAN Access Protocols

CSMA and CSMA/CD Access Techniques

Token Ring

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

LAN Interworking via Spanning Devices


LAN Bridges


Hubs and Switching Hubs

Chapter 12 Enterprise Networks II: Wide Area Networks

Wide Area Network Deployment

Packet Data Communications Based on CCITT Rec. X.25

Introduction to CCITT Rec. X.25

X.25 Architecture and Its Relationship to OSI

Tracing the Life of a Virtual Call 343 12.3 TCP/IP and Related Protocols

4 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Background and Objectives

ISDN Structures

User Access and Interface Structures

ISDN Protocols and Protocol Issues

ISDN Networks

ISDN Protocol Structures

Primary Rate Interfaces

Overview of Layer 2, ISDN D-Channel, LAPD Protocol

Overview of Layer 3

ISDN Packet Mode Review

Speeding Up the Network: Frame Relay

Rationale and Background

Genesis of Frame Relay

Introduction to Frame Relay Operation

Frame Structure

Traffic and Billing on a Frame Relay Network 000

Congestion Control: A Discussion

Quality of Service Parameters

Chapter 13 CCITT Signaling System No. 7

Overview of SS No. 7 Architecture

SS No. 7: Relationship to OSI

Signaling System Structure

Signaling Network Management

Signaling Data Link Layer (Layer 1)

Signaling Link Layer (Layer 2)

Basic Signal Unit Format

Error Detection

Error Correction 000

Flow Control

Basic Signal Unit Format

Signaling Network Functions and Messages (Layer 3)

Signaling Message-Handling Functions

Signaling Network Structure

International and National Signaling Networks

Signaling Performance: Message Transfer Part

Basic Performance Parameters

Traffic Characteristics

Transmission Parameters

Signaling Link Delays over Terrestrial and Satellite Links

Numbering Plan for International Signaling Point Codes

Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

Services Provided by the SCCP

Peer-to-Peer Communication

Connection-Oriented Functions: Temporary Signaling Connections

Structure of the SCCP

Telephone User Part

Chapter 14 Image Communications

Appreciation of Video Transmission

Additional Definitions

Composite Signal

Critical Video Parameters

Transmission Standard Level

Other Parameters

Video Transmission Standards (Criteria for Broadcasters)

Color Transmission

Standardized Transmission Parameters (Pointto-Point TV)

Methods of Program Channel Transmission

Transmission of Video over LOS Microwave

Bandwidth of the Baseband and Baseband Response


Differential Gain

Differential Phase

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (10 kHz to 5 MHz)

Continuity Pilot

TV Transmission by Satellite Relay

Digital Television


Basic Digital Television

Bit Rate Reduction and Compression Techniques

Overview of the MPEG-2 Compression Technique

Conference Television

pX64 Codec

Brief Overview of Frame Transport for Video Conferencing

(Cable Television)

Evolution of CATV

Early System Layouts

System Impairments and Performance Measures

dBmV and Its Applications

Thermal Noise in CATV Systems

Signal-to-Noise (S/N) Ratio versus Carrierto-Noise (C/N) Ratio in CATV Systems

Problem of Cross-Modulation (Xm)

Gains and Levels for CATV Amplifiers

Underlying Coaxial Cable System


Hybrid Fiber-Coax (HFC) Systems

Design of the Fiber Optic Portion of an HFC System

Digital Transmission of CATV Signals


Transmission of Uncompressed Video on CATV Trunks

Compressed Video

Two-Way CATV Systems


Impairments Peculiar to Upstream Service

Two-Way Voice and Data over CATV Systems According to the IEEE 802.14 Committee Standard

Overview of the Medium Access Control

Overview of the Physical Layer

Other General Information

Medium Access Control

Physical Layer Description

Upstream Physical Layer Specification

Chapter 16 Cellular and PCS Radio Systems

Basic Concepts of Cellular Radio

Radio Propagation in the Mobile Environment

Propagation Problem

Propagation Models

Impairments: Fading in the Mobile Environment

Diversity: A Technique to Mitigate the Effects of Fading and Dispersion

Cellular Radio Path Calculations

Cellular Radio Bandwidth Dilemma

Background and Objectives

Bit Rate Reduction of the Digital Voice Channel 489 16.6 Network Access Techniques

Frequency Division Multiple Access

Time Division Multiple Access

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Frequency Reuse

Personal Communication Services

Defining Personal Communications

Narrowband Microcell Propagation at PCS Distances

Cordless Telephone Technology

North American Cordless Telephones

European Cordless Telephones

Wireless LANs

Mobile Satellite Communications

Background and Scope

Two Typical LEO Systems

Advantages and Disadvantages of LEO Systems

Chapter 17 Advanced Broadband Digital Transport Formats


Synchronous Signal Structure

Rates for Standard SONET Interface Signals

Add–Drop Multiplex

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDH Standard Bit Rates

Interface and Frame Structure of

Chapter 18 Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Evolving Toward ATM

Introduction to ATM

User–Network Interface and Architecture

ATM Cell: Key to Operation

ATM Cell Structure

Idle Cells

Cell Delineation and Scrambling 543 18.6 ATM Layering and B-ISDN

Physical Layer

ATM Layer

ATM Adaptation Layer

Services: Connection-Oriented and Connectionless

Functional Architecture

B-ISDN/ATM Routing and Switching

Virtual Channel Level

Virtual Path Level

Signaling Requirements

Setup and Release of VCCs

Signaling Virtual Channels

Quality of Service

ATM Quality of Service Review

Selected QoS Parameter Descriptions

Traffic Control and Congestion Control

Transporting ATM Cells

In the DS3 Frame

DS1 Mapping

E1 Mapping

Mapping ATM Cells into SDH

Mapping ATM Cells into SONET



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