Download Handbook of IPv4 To IPv6 Transition (Methodologies for Institutional and Corporate Networks) By John J. Amoss, Daniel Minoli

Introduction

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) offers the potential of achieving the scalability, reachability, end-to-end interworking, quality of service (QoS), and commercial grade robustness for  data as  well as  for Voice-over-IP  (VoIP)/triple-play networks. Such capabilities are mandatory mileposts of the technology if itis to replace the time division multiplexing (TDM) infrastructure around the world.

IPv6 is now gaining momentum globally, with major interest and activity in Europe and Asia, and there is some traction in the United States. For    example, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) announced in 2003 that from   October 1, 2003, all new developments and procurements needed to be IPv6-capable. The DOD’s goal    is to complete the transition to  IPv6 for all intra- and internetworking across the agency by 2008. In 2005, the U.S. Government   Accountability   Office    (GAO)   recommended  that all agencies become proactive in planning    a coherent transition to    IPv6. Corporations and  institutions need to

start planning at this time how   to kick   off the  transition planning process and determine best how coexistence can be maintained during the three- to six-year          window that will likely    be required to achieve the global worldwide transition. This book addresses the migration and macro-level scalability requirements for this transition.

After an introduction in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2   we provide a brief tutorial of the IPv6 addressing capabilities. Chapter 3 looks at   IPv6 network constructs, specifically key routing processes; Chapter 4 examines the IPv6 auto configuration  techniques. To wrap up this portion of the text, Chapter 5 provides a more formal  look at  the suite of IPv6-related   protocols.

Chapter 6 starts the major discussion theme of this text: IPv6 enterprise/institutional network migration scenarios (tunneling and encapsulation). Coexistence issues            are also discussed. Chapter 7 concerns the various elements in the network and what    migration role they need to play to support the transition. Chapter 8 looks  at actual transition strategies for institutional and enterprise networks. Chapter   9 presents application aspects of the IPv6 transition. Chapter 10 concludes the discussion by looking at security in IPv6 networks. This book should prove useful to strategic planners at enterprise firms, carriers, and institutions. It will also be useful to software and applications developers.

Contents

1 Introduction.and.Overview 1                

Opportunities Offered by IPv6  1

Introductory Overview of IPv6   4

IPv6 Benefits   5

Traditional Addressing  Classes for IPv4 6

Network Address Translation Issues in  IPv4 8

IPv6Address      Space    9

Basic     Protocol Constructs   10

IPv6 Auto configuration   14

Migration and Coexistence   17

Course of Investigation 20

References   20

2 IPv6.Addressing 23

Introduction   23

IPv6 Addressing Mechanisms   23

Addressing Conventions 23

Addressing Issues/Reachability 25

Scope/Reachability   28

Address Types    30

Unicast IPv6 Addresses   30

Aggregately Global Unicast Addresses   30

Link-Local (Unicast) Addresses  32

Site-Local (Unicast) Addresses 32

Unspecified (Unicast)  Address 33

Loopback (Unicast) Address   33

Compatibility (Unicast) Addresses   34

Multicast IPv6    Addresses   34

Any cast IPv6      Addresses   37

Addresses for    Hosts     and Routers  37

2.4.1 Interface Determination   38

Mapping EUI-64                Addresses to IPv6 Interface Identifiers 38

Mapping IEEE 802 Addresses to IPv6 Interface    Identifiers 40

Randomly Generated Interface Identifiers   40

References  41

 3 IPv6.Network.Constructs 43   

Introduction       43

IPv6 Infrastructure         43

Protocol Mechanisms   43

Protocol Support Mechanisms  45

Routing and Route Management  48

References  50

 4 IPv6.Autoconfiguration.Techniques 53  

Introduction  53

Configuration    Methods  53

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 55

References  60

5 IPv6.and.Related.Protocols Details   61  

Introduction  61

Terminology  62

IPv6 Header Format  63

IPv6 Extension Headers 64

Extension Header Order 66

Options  66

Hop-by-Hop Options Header  68

Routing Header 69

Fragment Header  73

Destination Options Header  78

No Next Header 79

Packet Size Issues  79

Flow Labels  80

Traffic  Classes 81

Upper-Layer Protocol Issues  81

Upper-Layer      Checksums         81

Maximum Packet Lifetime    83

Maximum Upper-Layer Payload Size  83

Responding to  Packets Carrying Routing Headers  83

Semantics and   Usage   of the    Flow Label Field                 84

Formatting Guidelines for Options  85

Introduction to Addressing         87

IPv6 Addressing 88

Addressing Model   88

Text Representation of Addresses  89

Text Representation of Address Prefixes 90

Address Type Identification  9

Unicast Addresses  91

Interface Identifiers  92

The   Unspecified Address  93

The Loopback Address  93

Global   Unicast Addresses 94

IPv6 Addresses with Embedded IPv4 Addresses …94

Local-Use IPv6  Unicast Addresses           95

Any cast Addresses  95

Required Any cast Address  96

Multicast Addresses      97

Predefined Multicast Addresses  98

A Node’s Required Addresses  100

IANA Considerations      100

Creating Modified EUI-64 Format Interface Identifiers    101

Links or Nodes   with       IEEE        EUI-64   Identifiers  101

Links or Nodes with IEEE  802 48-Bit MACs  102

Links with Other Kinds   of Identifiers  103

Links without     Identifiers  103

64-Bit   Global   Identifier             (EUI-64)               Registration        Authority             ….. ………104

Application Restrictions  104

Distribution Restrictions  104

Application Documentation  105

Manufacturer-Assigned Identifiers  105

Additional Technical Details  105

References  105

Approaches.and.Mechanisms 107

Introduction  107

IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack  109

Translation Mechanisms  110

Stateless Internet Protocol/Internet Control Messaging Protocol Translation (SIIT)  …110

SIIT   Details  111

Bump in the Stack (BIS)   114

Bump    in the    API (BIA)  116

Overview  116

Details  117

Network Address Translation–Protocol  Translation  119

Overview  119

Details 119

Transport Relay Translator  121

Overview  121

Details  122

Tunneling  123

Static    Tunneling            124

Automatic Tunneling     Using     IPv4-Compatible Addresses         124

6over4 Transition Mechanism    125

6to4 Transition Mechanism        129.

Overview  129

6to4 Addressing and Site Routing 131

6to4 Transition Mechanism Details  131

Intrasite Automatic Tunnel Addressing  Protocol (ISATAP 133

Overview  133

ISATAP Addressing  133

Example Network  134

Teredo 135

Overview  135

Architecture  138

Teredo Addressing and Address Configuration    Process  .139

6.4 Sample Teredo Communication          139

References  140

7 IPv6.Network.Software.and.Hardware 143

  Introduction 143

IPv6 End Systems Application 144  .3

IPv6 End Systems Communications Software  145

Dual-IP-Layer Architecture  146

Installed and Enabled by Default    146

GUI-Based Configuration  147

Full Support for IPsec 147

Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2)  147

Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)  147

Literal IPv6 Addresses in URLs  148

Support for   ipv6-literal.net Names  148

IPv6 over PPP  148

Dynamic Host   Control Protocol Version 6  149

Random Interface IDs   149

Updates to Teredo  149

Enhanced Security for IPv6 and Teredo 150

Features to        Disable IPv6       Components        151

IPv6       Support by Major Router               Vendors  152

Cisco     Systems  153

Juniper Networks  154

Alcatel-Lucent 154

Carrier/ISP       IPv6 Services    155

Asia    Pacific   155

NTT. Communications IPv6-Related  Services 155

KDDI/KDDI Lab  157

Japan  Telecom  157

Europe 157

European Internet Exchange Association  157

BT — UK6x  158

North America  158

Moonv6  158

AT&T   158

Global Crossing  159

IPv6      in Wireless Networks  159

References  160

Implementing.IPv6.Transition.Strategies 161

Introduction    161

Summary          of            NREN    Transition            Recommendations          162

General Approach          for          NREN    Transition            162

Dual-Stack        Issues   162

General             Tunneling            Issues   163

IPv6     over       MPLS     Issues   164

Layer   2 Transport Protocol Considerations        for NRENs  165

Packet over SONET        (PoS)     Scenario   ……  165

MPLS Scenario  165

ATM Scenario    165

IPv6 Operations Working Group: Transition        Scenarios for ISPs  166

References  168

 9             IPv6.Applications 169

Introduction    169

Application Programming Interface

Overview ………………………….169

 

Socket  API Example       171

Core Socket Functions    172

Address Data Structures  172

Name-to-Address Translation Functions  174

Address Conversion Functions     174

Socket  Functions for IPv6   ……….  174

IPv6 Support for Networking Applications 175

References        176

 10          Security.in.IPv6.Networks…………………………………………………………177

Introduction      177

Confidentiality and Integrity of Information While in Transit    177

IPsec Mechanisms          180

Keyed  Hashing for          Message              Authentication  182

Security Architecture    the Internet Protocols 182

IP Authentication Header             183

Use of  -MD5-96 within ESP and AH     183

Use       of HMAC-SHA-96 within ESP and AH 184

ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm with Explicit         IV    184

IP Encapsulating Security Payload 185

Automatic Key Management 185

The Internet Key Exchange 185

Transport          Layer Security    Mechanisms      186

Conclusion        187

References  187

Appendices A Basic.IPv6.Terminology 189

B Basic.IPv6.Bibliography 203

Index 223

 

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