Download Understanding IPv6 By Joseph Davies

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Introduction

The most obvious distinguishing feature of IPv6 is its use of much larger addresses. The size of an address in IPv6 is 128 bits, a bit-string that is four times longer than the 32-bit IPv4 address. A 32-bit address space allows for 232, or 4,294, , possible addresses. A 128-bit address space allows for 2128, or 340 (or 3.4 × 1038), possible addresses. In the late 1970s, when the IPv4 address space was designed, it was unimaginable that it could ever be exhausted. However, due to changes in technology and an allocation practice that did not anticipate the recent explosion of hosts on the Internet, the IPv4 address space was consumed to the point that by 1992, it was clear a replacement would be necessary.

Table Content

1 Introduction to IPv6

Limitations of IPv4

Consequences of the Limited IPv4 Address Space

Features of IPv6

New Header Format

Large Address Space

Efficient and Hierarchical Addressing  and Routing Infrastructure

Stateless and Stateful Address Configuration

Built-in Security

Better Support for QoS

New Protocol for Neighboring Node Interaction

Extensibility

Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6

IPv6 Terminology

The Case for IPv6 Deployment

IPv6 Solves the Address Depletion Problem

IPv6 Solves the International Address

Allocation Problem

IPv6 Restores End-to-End Communication

IPv6 Uses Scoped Addresses and Address Selection

IPv6 has More Efficient Forwarding

IPv6 has Built-in Security and Mobility

Testing for Understanding

2 IPv6 Protocol for the Windows .NET Server 2003 Family

Architecture of the IPv6 Protocol for the

Windows .NET Server 2003 Family

Features of the IPv6 Protocol for the

Windows .NET Server 2003 Family

Basic Stack Support

6to4

ISATAP

6over4

PortProxy

Temporary Addresses

DNS Support

IPSec Support

Static Router Support

Address Selection

Site Prefixes in Router Advertisements

Application Support

Internet Explorer

Telnet Client

FTP Client

Web Server

File and Print Sharing

Windows Media Services

Network Monitor

SNMP MIB Support

Application Programming Interfaces

Windows Sockets

Remote Procedure Call

IP Helper

Win32 Internet Extensions

.NET Framework

Installing and Configuring the IPv6 Protocol

IPv6-enabled Utilities

Ipconfig

Route

Ping

Tracert

Pathping

Netstat

IPv6 Command Line Utilities

Netsh.exe

Ipsec6.exe

Testing for Understanding

3 IPv6 Addressing

The IPv6 Address Space

Current Allocation

IPv6 Address Syntax

Compressing Zeros

IPv6 Prefixes

Types of IPv6 Addresses

Unicast IPv6 Addresses

Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses

Topologies Within Global Addresses

Local-Use Unicast Addresses

Special IPv6 Addresses

Compatibility Addresses

NSAP Addresses

Multicast IPv6 Addresses

Recommended Multicast IPv6 Addresses

Solicited-Node Address

Anycast IPv6 Addresses

Subnet-Router Anycast Address

IPv6 Addresses for a Host

IPv6 Addresses for a Router

Subnetting the IPv6 Address Space

Subnetting for NLA IDs

Subnetting for SLA IDs/Subnet IDs

IPv6 Interface Identifiers

EUI-64 Address-based Interface Identifiers

Temporary Address Interface Identifiers

Mapping IPv6 Multicast Addresses to Ethernet Addresses

IPv4 Addresses and IPv6 Equivalents

Testing for Understanding

4 The IPv6 Header

Structure of an IPv6 Packet

IPv4 Header

IPv6 Header

Values of the Next Header Field

Comparing the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers

IPv6 Extension Headers

Extension Headers Order

Hop-by-Hop Options Header

Destination Options Header

Routing Header

Fragment Header

Authentication Header

Encapsulating Security Payload Header and Trailer

IPv6 MTU

Upper-Layer Checksums

Testing for Understanding

5 ICMPv6

Overview of ICMPv6

Types of ICMPv6 Messages

ICMPv6 Header

ICMPv6 Error Messages

Destination Unreachable

Packet Too Big

Time Exceeded

Parameter Problem

ICMPv6 Informational Messages

Echo Request

Echo Reply

Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages

Path MTU Discovery

Changes in PMTU

References

Testing for Understanding

6 Neighbor Discovery

Neighbor Discovery Overview 1

Neighbor Discovery Message Format

Neighbor Discovery Options

Source and Target Link-Layer Address Options

Prefix Information Option

Redirected Header Option

MTU Option

Advertisement Interval Option

Home Agent Information Option

Route Information Option

Neighbor Discovery Messages

Router Solicitation

Router Advertisement

Neighbor Solicitation

Neighbor Advertisement

Redirect 168

Summary of Neighbor Discovery Messages and Options

Neighbor Discovery Processes

Conceptual Host Data Structures

Address Resolution

Neighbor Unreachability Detection

Duplicate Address Detection

Router Discovery

Redirect Function

Host Sending Algorithm

IPv4 Neighbor Messages and Functions and IPv6 Equivalents

Testing for Understanding

7 Multicast Listener Discovery

Overview of Multicast Listener Discovery

IPv6 Multicast Overview

Host Support for Multicast

Router Support for Multicast

MLD Packet Structure

MLD Messages

Multicast Listener Query

Multicast Listener Report

Multicast Listener Done

Summary of MLD

 

8 Address Autoconfiguration

Address Autoconfiguration Overview

Autoconfigured Address States

Types of Autoconfiguration

Autoconfiguration Process

IPv6 Protocol for the Windows .NET Server 2003 Family

and Windows XP Autoconfiguration Specifics

Autoconfigured Addresses for the IPv6 Protocol

for the Windows .NET Server 2003 Family and Windows XP

9 IPv6 and Name Resolution

Name Resolution for IPv6

DNS Enhancements for IPv6

Name Resolution Support in the Windows .NET

Server 2003 Family

Hosts File

DNS Server Service

DNS Resolver

DNS Dynamic Update

Address Selection Rules

10 IPv6 Routing

Routing in IPv6

IPv6 Routing Table

End-to-End IPv6 Delivery Process

IPv6 on the Sending Host

IPv6 on the Router

IPv6 on the Destination Host

IPv6 Routing Protocols

Overview of Dynamic Routing

Routing Protocol Technologies

Routing Protocols for IPv6

Static Routing with the IPv6 Protocol for the Windows .NET

Server 2003 Family and Windows XP

References

Testing for Understanding

11 Coexistence and Migration

Coexistence and Migration Overview

Node Types

Compatibility Addresses

Coexistence Mechanisms

Dual IP Layer

IPv6 over IPv4 Tunneling

DNS Infrastructure

Tunneling Configurations

Router-to-Router

Host-to-Router and Router-to-Host

Host-to-Host

Types of Tunnels

6over4

6to4

6to4 Support in Windows XP and the Windows .NET

ISATAP 283

Using an ISATAP Router 285

Configuring the IPv6 Protocol for Windows XP and the

Windows .NET Server 2003 Family as an ISATAP Router

ISATAP and 6to4 Example

PortProxy

Migrating to IPv6

12 IPv6 Mobility

IPv6 Mobility Overview

IPv6 Mobility Components

IPv6 Mobility Messages and Options

Destination Options Header Options

ICMPv6 Messages

Modifications to Neighbor Discovery Messages

and Options

IPv6 Mobility Data Structures

Binding Cache

Binding Update List

Home Agents List

IPv6 Mobility Communication

Communication Between a Mobile Node and correspondent Node

Communication Between a Mobile Node and Its Home Agent

IPv6 Mobility Processes

Attaching to the Home Link

Moving From the Home Link to a Foreign Link

Moving from a Foreign Link to Another Foreign Link

Returning Home

IPv6 Mobility Host Sending Algorithm

IPv6 Mobility Host Receiving Algorithm

 

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